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“An ambitious and lucid full narrative account of the peopling of Europe . . . this will undoubtedly provide a base line for future debates on the origins of the Europeans.” ?J. P. Mallory, author of In Search of the Indo-Europeans and The Origins of the Irish
Who are the Europeans? Where did they come from? New research in the fields of archaeology and linguistics, a revolution in the study of genetics, and cutting-edge analysis of ancient DNA are dramatically changing our picture of prehistory, leading us to question what we thought we knew about these ancient peoples.
This paradigm-shifting book paints a spirited portrait of a restless people that challenges our established ways of looking at Europe’s past. The story is more complex than at first believed, with new evidence suggesting that the European gene pool was stirred vigorously multiple times. Genetic clues are also enhancing our understanding of European mobility in epochs with written records, including the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons, the spread of the Slavs, and the adventures of the Vikings.
Now brought completely up to date with all the latest findings from the fast-moving fields of genetics, DNA, and dating, Jean Manco’s highly readable account weaves multiple strands of evidence into a startling new history of the continent, of interest to anyone who wants to truly understand Europeans’ place in the ancient world. 124 illustrations, including 59 maps
Sampietro 2006. Other criteria for the authenticity of ancient DNA include repeated amplification from the same extracts and replication in a second laboratory: Pääbo 2004. 9. The use of primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Deguilloux 2011b. 10. Knapp and Hofreiter 2010. 11. Keller 2012. 12. Ricaut 2012; Pinhasi 2012. 13. Wilson and van der Dussen 1995, 2. 14. Yang 2012; Drineas, Lewis and Paschou 2010; Tian 2009; Novembre 2008; Tian 2008. 15. Ralph and Coop 2012. 16. Di Gaetano
stretching from the northern Zagros to southeastern Anatolia. These closely related species are suited to hill country.10  27 Wild sheep. The first domesticated sheep lacked the fleece of modern breeds, which was the result of selective breeding for wool c. 4000 BC. Farming began before the first Near Eastern pottery was made, so the earliest farming period there is known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA). Populations grew rapidly at this time.11 Yet once humans were in close contact with
Proto-Afro-Asiatic. His descendants might make quite a tribe of their own within a few generations, but closely allied to other Afro-Asiatic speakers who happened to be dominated by E-M81. So groups of farmers leaving for North Africa from that source population would carry at least those two haplogroups. Clannishness might ensure that the tribe of R1b1c (V88) then mainly wandered its own way. The distribution of the haplogroup suggests that it moved south across the Sahara to Lake Chad, leaving
lead. The war wagons on the Standard of Ur, c. 2600 BC, have wheels of the earliest type, solid rather than spoked.  Yet these are by no means the earliest images of wheeled vehicles. Pictographs of wagons appear around 3500 BC on clay tablets from Uruk in Mesopotamia and on a Funnel Beaker pot from Bronocice in Poland. Wagons were still rare then. Pictographs of sledges are far more common from Uruk.8 The earliest evidence of the wheel comes from the late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture in the
5th-century warlord, Niall of the Nine Hostages. R1b-M222 seemed particularly common among those with some surnames traditionally linked to Uí Néill, such as Gallagher, Boyle, Doherty and O’Donnell. It also appears among the Connachta, supposed descendants of the brothers of Niall. So R1b-M222 was initially labelled as the lineage of Niall.48 Alas, this attractive idea rested on genealogies which were tampered with around AD 730 to make the famous Niall the ancestor of unrelated kings based in